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J. Korean Ceram. Soc. > Volume 61(2); 2024 > Article
Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society 2024;61(2): 342-365.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43207-023-00357-7
Growth of (1−x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3xKNbO3 single crystals by the self-flux method and their characterisation
Ali Abbas1, Wan‑Gil Jung2, Won‑Jin Moon2, Eugenie Uwiragiye1,5, Thuy Linh Pham1, Jong‑Sook Lee1 , John G. Fisher1 , Wenwei Ge3, Furqan Ul Hassan Naqvi4, Jae‑Hyon Ko4
1School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea
2Korea Basic Science Institute, Gwangju Center, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea
3Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 5988 Renmin Main St., Changchun, Jilin, 130022, People’s Republic of China
4School of Nano Convergence Technology, Nano Convergence Technology Center, Hallym University, 1 Hallymdaehakgil, Chuncheon, Gangwondo, 24252, Republic of Korea
Correspondence  Won‑Jin Moon ,Email: wjmoon@kbsi.re.kr
Jong‑Sook Lee ,Email: jongsook@jnu.ac.kr
John G. Fisher ,Email: johnfisher@jnu.ac.kr
Received: August 25, 2023; Revised: November 24, 2023   Accepted: December 6, 2023.  Published online: January 17, 2024.
Single crystals of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-based compositions are of interest for actuator applications. In this work, single crystals of nominal composition (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 (NBT) and 0.92(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3–0.08KNbO3 (NBT-KN) are grown by the self-flux method and their structure and electrical properties characterized. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that both the NBT and NBT-KN single crystals have a tetragonal structure, whereas polarized light microscopy and Raman scattering indicate a rhombohedral structure. Electron probe microanalysis shows the NBT single crystal is Na-deficient and slightly Bi-excess, while the NBT-KN single crystal is Na-deficient and slightly Bi-excess, slightly Nb-deficient and noticeably K-deficient. Temperature-controlled Raman scattering and measurement of the dielectric properties reveal that the characteristic phase transitions in NBT shift to lower temperatures on formation of a solid solution with KNbO3. The transitions indicated in the Raman scattering analysis can also be revealed by the impedance modeling parameters in terms of capacitance relaxations by diffusion mechanisms.
Key words: Single crystal · (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 · X-ray diffraction · Raman scattering · Impedance spectroscopy
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