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J. Korean Ceram. Soc. > Volume 61(3); 2024 > Article
Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society 2024;61(3): 367-390.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43207-024-00365-1
A review of photocatalytic CO2 reduction: exploring sustainable carbon emission mitigation from thermodynamics to kinetics and strategies for enhanced efficiency
Hassan Akbar1,3, Muhammad Subhan Javed2, Syeda Tehreem Iqbal2, Muhammad Iftikhar Khan2, Tauseef Anwar6, Faiza Anjum2, Ashfaq Ahmad4, Muhammad Muneeb2, Asghar Ali2 , Won-Chun Oh5
1Department of Physics, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology (AUST), Abbottabad, Pakistan
2Department of Physics, The University of Lahore, 1-km, Defense Road, Lahore, Pakistan
3College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power, University 2 Beinong Road, Changing District, Beijing 102206, China
4School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China
5Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Hanseo University, 46, Hanseo Ro, Haemi-myun, Seosan, Chungnam, Republic of Korea
6Department of Physics, Division of Science and Technology, University of Education Lahore, Lahore 54770, Pakistan
Correspondence  Asghar Ali ,Email: asghar246@gmail.com
Won-Chun Oh ,Email: wc_oh@hanseo.ac.kr
Received: October 29, 2023; Revised: November 11, 2023   Accepted: January 5, 2024.  Published online: February 21, 2024.
To mitigate the increased CO2 emission, CO2 reduction to multi-carbon fuels or other useable substances is an appealing yet essential approach. Since, reduction of CO2 is a thermodynamically uphill process, an economical CO2 fixation is only achievable if energy source used is of renewable energy such as solar energy. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction is a complex process due to its dependency on catalyst design, selectivity, efficiency, and photostability. The competence of a photocatalytic CO2 reduction reaction is effected by factors, such as the type of photocatalyst used their band-gap energy, surface area, and structure of the crystal. This review discusses the kinetics and thermodynamics of photocatalytic CO2 reduction and considers the effects of parameters like defects and impurity doping on photocatalysis. The study also focusses on the selectivity of products, i.e., methane, methanol, formaldehyde, etc. This comprehensive review provides insights into the development and improvement of photocatalytic efficiency for CO2 photoreduction, contributing to the reduction of carbon emissions and a more sustainable future.
Key words: Photocatalytic CO2 reduction  · CO2 to fuels  · Impurity doping  · Kinetic model  · Structural CO2
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