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J. Korean Ceram. Soc. > Volume 57(5); 2020 > Article
Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society 2020;57(5): 546-556.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43207-020-00060-x
Geopolymer–carbonated apatite nanocomposites with magnesium and strontium trace elements for dental restorative materials
Dahlia Sutanto1,2 , Mieke Hemiawati Satari2, Bethy S. Hernowo3, Bambang Pontjo Priosoeryanto4, Rifki Septawendar5, Lia A. T. W. Asri6 , Bambang Sunendar Purwasasmita7,8
1Faculty of Dentistry, Maranatha Christian University, Bandung 40164, Indonesia
2Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Biology, Padjajaran University, Bandung 40161, Indonesia
3Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomical Pathology, Medical School Padjajaran University/Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung 40161, Indonesia
4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Division of Veterinary Pathology, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
5Nanomaterials Research Group, Department of Advanced Ceramics, Glass, and Enamel, Center for Ceramics, Ministry of Industry of Indonesia, Bandung 40272, Indonesia
6Materials Science and Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
7Advanced Materials Processing Group, Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
8Research Center for Nanosciences and Nanotechnology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Correspondence  Dahlia Sutanto ,Email: dahlia.sutanto@dent.maranatha.edu
Lia A. T. W. Asri ,Email: lia.asri@material.itb.ac.id
Received: March 16, 2020; Revised: May 12, 2020   Accepted: May 16, 2020.  Published online: September 30, 2020.
ABSTRACT
Geopolymer and carbonated apatite are potential materials for dental restoration. We reported the synthesis of geopolymer–carbonated apatite nanocomposite, highlighting the influence of trace elements in carbonated apatite toward mechanical, leachability and cytotoxicity properties. Various carbonated apatites were combined with metakaolin, followed by geopolymerization. The study revealed that with addition of Mg2+ and Sr2+, the geopolymer–carbonated apatite nanocomposites have the tendency to have lower mechanical properties. Geopolymer and geopolymer–carbonated apatite showed higher hardness, compressive strength, and modulus elasticity compared with geopolymer–carbonated apatite containing Mg2+ and/or Sr2+. Nevertheless, all samples showed mechanical properties that could be applied as dental restoration materials. Leaching assay confirmed the release of Na+ in all samples, originating from unreacted alkali activator. The Na+ concentration decreased significantly after 96 h of total washing, with the lowest value of 1 ppm. Cytotoxicity test was evaluated toward mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, indicating that all samples were not toxic to cells.
Key words: Geopolymer · Carbonated apatite · Magnesium · Strontium · Dental restorative materials
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