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J. Korean Ceram. Soc. > Volume 57(2); 2020 > Article
Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society 2020;57(2): 167-174.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43207-019-00014-y
Experimental investigation of strength, durability, and microstructure of red‑mud concrete
Chava Venkatesh , Ruben Nerella, Madduru Sri Rama Chand
Department of Civil Engineering, Vignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and Research, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
Correspondence  Chava Venkatesh ,Email: chvenky288@gmail.com
Received: November 5, 2019; Revised: November 28, 2019   Accepted: November 29, 2019.  Published online: February 29, 2020.
Recent trends in the construction industry involve the use of industrial by-products as building materials to improve waste management and reduce excessive CO2 emissions from the cement industry. Red mud (RM) is a by-product of alumina refinery plants. When improperly disposed, red mud harms the surrounding area, owing to its highly alkaline nature. In the current work, up to 15% of the cement in concrete was replaced with red mud, in increments of 2.5%. In addition, to enhance the pozzolanic reaction, metakaolin was used as a ternary mineral; it replaces 10% of the cement. A slump cone test was conducted to evaluate the workability. Compressive, flexural, and split tensile strength tests were conducted to observe the mechanical properties. A rapid chloride penetration test and water absorption tests were conducted to determine the durability properties of the concrete. X-ray fluorescence analysis was conducted to determine the chemical composition of both the red mud and the metakaolin. A scanning electron microscope analysis was conducted to characterize the microstructure of the RM concrete. The 12.5% red-mud replacement mix showed the greatest improvement in mechanical properties among all the mixes. As the red-mud replacement increased, the chloride-ion passage was reduced. Moreover, a denser microstructure formation was observed with the red-mud replacement, as compared to standard concrete.
Key words: Scanning electron microscope · Mechanical properties · Metakaolin · Rapid chloride penetration test · Red mud · Split tensile strength
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